3D ANTHROPOMETRY IN ERGONOMIC PRODUCT DESIGN EDUCATION
Editor: Bohemia, Erik; Kovacevic, Ahmed; Buck, Lyndon; Brisco, Ross; Evans, Dorothy; Grierson, Hilary; Ion, William; Whitfield, Robert Ian
Author: Jellema, Anton (1); Galloin, Evan (2); Massé, Benoît (2); Ruiter, Iemkje (1); Molenbroek, Johan (1); Huysmans, Toon (1)
Institution: 1: Delft University of Technology, Faculty Industrial Design Engineering - Netherlands, The; 2: ESTIA Institute of Technology, Bidart - France
Section: Innovation 4
DOI number: https://doi.org/10.35199/epde2019.2
The Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering of the Delft University of Technology offers a bachelor’s degree education programme and three master programmes. Our students are lectured in ergonomics and learn to design and conduct research in ergonomics. In this paper we describe the development of methods to realize ergonomic fit mapping based on 3D anthropometrics and to educate students on this topic.
At our faculty, we have a long tradition in teaching the use of 1D and 2D anthropometric data based on an anthropometric design model. However, due to the increasing availability of 3D scan data, 3D scanners and 3D printers, the design model is extended with new methods. We enter the complex field of 3D anthropometry and statistical shape models, which is an increasingly popular mathematical representation for 3D human shape variation. These facilities and knowledge are particularly useful when it comes to products that should fit close to the human body, like face masks, eyewear, protection gear for hands or lower legs in sports, as well as products in the medical field, like orthoses and prostheses.
Till now, at our faculty, most of the education is done through individual or team projects. This setting allows us to spend more time on explanation and to give access to scan data from international research projects like CAESAR (http://store.sae.org/caesar/). Three years ago, we also started with lectures about 3D scanning, 3D anthropometry and workshops for first year bachelor students (more than 300 students each year). The use of 3D anthropometrics is explained and practiced throughout the different stages of complexity. It starts with the use of 1D and 2D anthropometric data, the application of percentiles and the DINED tool Ellipse (www.dined.nl) to see the correlation between two different body dimensions and to determine the consequences for related product dimensions. It ends with the use of 3D anthropometric data for the design of a helmet for cyclists, by way of bi-variate based shape analysis of the head. We made efforts to lower the burden for students working with 3D scan data, for example by providing pre-processed 3D scan databases and casus specific measurement tables.
To conclude, the traditional anthropometric design model (iterative design steps from a sketch to a mock up with use of 1D data in anthropometric databases, 2D mannequins and 3D digital human models), is extended with the use of detailed human shape information in 3D CAD software. The challenge is to facilitate our students with intuitive ways of providing access to statistical shape models, as well as ways to incorporate these shape models into 3D CAD software. The authors present an overview of the methods and tools they have developed or are going to develop, from the use of a 3D scan for a personalized product to the application of statistical shape models based on the selection of specific human features for mass production products.