MODELING PARADOXES IN NOVICE AND EXPERT DESIGN
DS 68-2: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 11), Impacting Society through Engineering Design, Vol. 2: Design Theory and Research Methodology, Lyngby/Copenhagen, Denmark, 15.-19.08.2011
In their ICED09 paper ‘Problem formulation as a discursive activity’, the authors have used an extensive educational case study to explore a framework for describing design as a discursive activity, centered around the paradoxical nature of the problem situation. The ‘working definition’ for paradox that was used as the basis of that paper will now be re-examined, extended and detailed in the light of studies on expert designers. In particular, paradoxes will now be situated as an opposition between frames or within frames. Expert designers can be seen to build up a rich picture of the frames at play in a design situation, and extract themes that can lead to reformulation of the problem as well as the creation of innovative solutions. This behaviour is compared to the ways of working of novice designers (students) in the original case study.